L’apparition de « maladies de civilisations » et l’incertitude des réponses trouvées dans les données épidémiologiques en nutrition a conduit les chercheurs à essayer de trouver dans l’alimentation du passé des pistes pour une meilleur alimentation.
En 1985, l’article scientifique fondateur de ce qui sera l’alimentation paléo (paleo-diet) est publié par Eaton & Konner (un livre, Stone age diet était paru dix ans plus tôt, et on peut considérer dans une moindre mesure Weston Price comme l’initiateur de l’idée de se référer à l’abandon des alimentations traditionnelles comme explication des maladies de civilisation).

3 grandes familles de questions :
– Est-il possible, au sein de la diversité des régimes alimentaires des chasseurs-cueilleurs, d’identifier des constantes permettant de définir une alimentation des chasseurs-cueilleurs, et notamment des chasseurs-cueilleurs de la fin du pléistocène, qui sont les ancêtres des humains actuels ?

– Dans quelle mesure l’alimentation à laquelle nos ancêtres se sont adaptés contraint-elle aujourd’hui les humains du 21ème siècle ? Quelles sont les marges de manoeuvre ? Dans quelle mesure nous sommes-nous adaptés aux évolutions survenues depuis le néolithique, et aux nouvelles évolutions survenues depuis le début de l’ère industrielle ? Quelles sont ces évolutions, précisément ?

– Existe-t-il, au sein de l’offre alimentaire moderne, quelque chose qui ressemble aux aliments consommés au paléolithique, ou du moins existe-t-il des caractéristiques rapprochant ou éloignant les aliments modernes des aliments anciens ?

Histoire de l’idée d’une alimentation paléo bénéfique

Evolutionary basis for the human diet: consequences for human health
Andrews & Johnson
Journal of internal medicine, 2019

The relationship of evolution with diet and environment can provide insights into modern disease.

Hunter‐gatherers as models in public health
Pontzer et al.
Obesity reviews, 2018

Longevity among small‐scale populations approaches that of industrialized populations, and metabolic and cardiovascular disease are rare. Obesity prevalence is very low (<5%), and mean body fat percentage is modest (women: 24–28%, men: 9–18%). Activity levels are high, exceeding 100 min d−1 of moderate and vigorous physical activity, but daily energy expenditures are similar to industrialized populations. Diets in hunter‐gatherer and other small‐scale societies tend to be less energy dense and richer in fibre and micronutrients than modern diets but are not invariably low carbohydrate as sometimes argued. A more integrative understanding of hunter‐gatherer health and lifestyle, including elements beyond diet and activity, will improve public health efforts in industrialized populations.

Paleolithic nutrition, twenty-five years later
Konner & Eaton
Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 2010

Cliquer pour accéder à Paleolithic-Nutrition-Twenty-Five%20Years-Later-Eaton.pdf

A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which depar-tures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gath-erer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model.

The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic
Cordain et al.
European journal of clinical nutrition, 2002

The high reliance upon animal-based foods would not have necessarily elicited unfavorable blood lipid profiles because of the hypolipidemic effects of high dietary protein (19–35% energy) and the relatively low level of dietary carbohydrate (22–40% energy). Although fat intake (28–58% energy) would have been similar to or higher than that found in Western diets, it is likely that important qualitative differences in fat intake, including relatively high levels of MUFA and PUFA and a lower ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratio, would have served to inhibit the development of CVD. Other dietary characteristics including high intakes of antioxidants, fiber, vitamins and phytochemicals along with a low salt intake may have operated synergistically with lifestyle characteristics (more exercise, less stress and no smoking) to further deter the development of CVD.

Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: evolutionary implications for reducing diet-related chronic disease
Cordain et al.
European journal of clinical nutrition, 2002

Literature comparisons showed tissue lipids of North American and African ruminants were similar to pasture-fed cattle, but dissimilar to grain-fed cattle. The lipid composition of wild ruminant tissues may serve as a model for dietary lipid recommendations in treating and preventing chronic disease.

Paleolithic nutrition, what did our ancestors eat
Miller et al, (200x ?)

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Miller Cordain comparison HG modern

Paleolithic nutrition revisited : a twelve-year retropective on its nature and implications
Eaton et al.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1997

The nutritional needs of today’s humans arose through a multimillion year evolutionary process during nearly all of which genetic change reflected the life circumstances of our ancestral species (Eaton & Konner, 1985). But, since the appearance of agriculture 10 000 y ago and especially since the Industrial Revolution, genetic adaptation has been unable to keep pace with cultural progress (Cohen, 1989;Tooby & Cosimides, 1990). Natural selection has produced only minor alterations during the past 10 000 y, so we remain nearly identical to our late Paleolithic ancestors (Tooby & Cosimides, 1990) and, accordingly, their nutritional pattern has continuing relevance. The preagricultural diet might be considered a possible paradigm or standard for contemporary human nutrition

Stone agers in the fast line : chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionnary perspective
Boyd Eaton et al.
The american journal of medicine, 1988

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Paleolithic Nutrition, a consideration of it nature and current implications
Eaton & Konner
New England journal of medicine, 1985

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The Stone age diet
Walter L. Voetglin, 1975

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Cette publication est citée notamment par Katharine Milton pour contester l’importante consommation de produits animaux soulignée par la publication de Cordain, 2000. Effectivement, Lee trouve des chiffres inférieurs à ceux de Cordain, à partir, a priori, du même atlas ethnographique. Il est difficile de trancher entre les deux, même si Cordain a l’avantage d’avoir mené un travail statistique, mais même Lee souligne que l’on ne descend jamais sous les 20% d’aliments issus de la chasse.

What hunters do for a living, or how to make out on scarce resources
Richard B. Lee
In Man the hunter, Aldine Publishing Company, 1968

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Lee 1968

Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, A Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets and Their Effects
Weston A Price, 1939

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Santé des populations paléolithiques

An abundance of developmental anomalies and abnormalities in Pleistocene people
Erik Trinkaus
PNAS, 2018

The patterns and incidences of developmental abnormalities and anomalies through Pleistocene human evolution may provide insights into issues of survival, stress, consanguinity, and mortuary behavior among these foraging populations. A synthesis of these developmental variants through the Homo fossil record provides 75 cases from 66 individuals, an exceptional total given the small paleontological samples. These are primarily from the past 200,000 years, given better preservation through burial, but are known from up to 1.5 million years ago. One-third of them have moderately low probabilities (P < 0.05), yet 14% are very rare (P < 0.0001), and 19% have no known etiology. No single factor accounts for the extremely low cumulative probability of finding these abnormalities, but this raises questions concerning the natures of Pleistocene human populations.

Effets d’une alimentation paléo

Scientific evidence of diets for weight loss: Different macronutrient composition, intermittent fasting, and popular diets
Rachel Freire
Nutrition, 2020

Freire 2020 divers régimes

To Restore Health, “Do we Have to Go Back to theFuture?”
The Impact of a 4-Day Paleolithic LifestyleChange on Human Metabolism – a Pilot Study.

Jens Freese et al.
Journal of evolution and health, 2016

Thirteen healthy adult volunteers were transferred to the DELUX National Park (Germany andLuxembourg) for four days and three nights, where Stone Age conditions where mimicked. Thirty-eight biochemical and bioelectrical parameters were measured from participants before and after this relocation.
[…]The rapid metabolic effects in our study display that a short but multifactorial lifestyle change in the scope of a simulated paleolythic environment led to an accelerated recovery of energy homeostasis in a short periodof 4 days. Anthropometric determinants such as body weight (-3,9%), body fat (-7,5%), body mass index (-3,8%) and visceral fat area (-14,4%) decreased significantly. These improvements were expected due to the relatively low caloric intake (1567 ckal per day) combined with a high quantum of physical activity (15 km hiking per day), partially under fasting conditions, contrasting the ever present inactivity in todays sedentary lifestyle. More unexpected we noted extravagant changes of parameters related to metaflammation. Outstandingly, fasting glucose (-18,2%), insulin (-50,1%) and HOMA (-57,8%) dropped highly significant. In contrast, CRP as the main indicator for LGI, raised to an average of 169.6 %. We suppose, that living in the wild stimulates the innate immune system as shown by Qing [52] and Park [53] via activation of proinflammatory pathways in order to anticipate evolutionary old danger signals such as bacteria, viruses, insects or predators.

Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis
Manheimer et al
American journal of clinical nutrition, 2015

The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater short-term improvements in metabolic syndrome components than did guideline-based control diets. The available data warrant additional evaluations of the health benefits of Paleolithic nutrition.

Hype or Reality: Should Patients with Metabolic Syndrome-related NAFLD be on the Hunter-Gatherer (Paleo) Diet to Decrease Morbidity?
Giovanni Tarantino
Journal of gastrointestinal and liver disease, 2015

Cliquer pour accéder à 5638d98f08ae51ccb3cc9f38.pdf

On the contrary, a simplified way of eating healthily by excluding highly-processed foods, is presumed to be the Paleolithic diet (a diet based on vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, meat, organ meats) which improves insulin resistance, ameliorates dyslipidemia, reduces hypertension and may reduce the risk of age-related diseases. The diet is the foundation of the treatment of obesity- and type 2 diabetes-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and a diet similar to those of pre-agricultural societies may be an effective option. To lend sufficient credence to this type of diet, well-designed studies are needed.

Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis
Maheimer et al.
American journal of clinical nutrition, 2015

The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater short-term improvements in metabolic syndrome components than did guideline-based control diets. The available data warrant additional evaluations of the health benefits of Paleolithic nutrition.

Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet
Frasseto et al.
European journal of clinical nutrition, 2009

Even short-term consumption of a paleolithic type diet improves BP and glucose tolerance, decreases insulin secretion, increases insulin sensitivity and improves lipid profiles without weight loss in healthy sedentary humans.

Inquiétudes modernes

Nutrition, diet, physical activity, smoking, and longevity: From primitive hunter-gatherer to present passive consumer—How far can we go?
Walker et al.
Nutrition, 2003

Nevertheless, for the few who, with determination, are eager to improve their lifestyles, there could be highly profitable lengthening of years of “healthy life expectancy” by eating less, eating more plant foods, being much more physically active, and restricting non-dietary risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption).

Remarques Wikipedia

Je fais ma thèse sur les représentations et les utilisations de l’évolution humaine, et je peux sans doute apporter quelques précisions et remarques à cet article.

 »’Première image d’illustration : »’
« Les protéines animales, essentiellement issues de la viande, sont la base du régime paléolithique. »

Cette affirmation pose deux problèmes :
1. Ce n’est pas le consensus parmi les promoteurs d’une alimentation paléo. Par exemple, l’article fondateur de Konner et Eaton de 1985 donnent seulement 1/3 de produits animaux dans l’alimentation des chasseurs-cueilleurs. De même, les différentes pyramides alimentaires que l’on trouve parmi les promoteurs (scientifiques et non-scientifiques) du régime paléo mettent soit les produits animaux, soit les végétaux à la base de la pyramide, sans qu’ils soit possible a première vue de distinguer quel cas est le plus fréquent.
2. L’expression « protéines animales » est malvenue. Il vaudrait mieux parler de « produits animaux », les protéines n’étant qu’un des nutriments qui les composent, la recherche récente en évolution de l’alimentation suggérant que de nombreux macro et micro nutriments entrent en jeu dans l’efficacité possible d’une telle alimentation, et dans le rôle de l’alimentation dans l’évolution humaine.

Paleolithic Nutrition, a consideration of its nature and current implications
Eaton & Konner
New England journal of medicine, 1985

Cliquer pour accéder à Paleolithic%20Nutrition%20NEJM%2085.pdf

Dans le texte :
« Il se compose notamment d’une part importante de viandes maigres »

Là, on a un problème d’adéquation entre recherche en nutrition, recherche récente en (paléo)anthropologie : les études de (paléo)anthropologie ont d’abord suggéré une alimentation maigre, mais il est aujourd’hui suggéré que c’est au contraire la recherche de lipides qui a été essentielle dans l’évolution humaine.

Mais les essais en nutrition ont tendance à garder l’idée première d’une alimentation maigre quand elles testent une alimentation paléo, quoique pas toujours, l’idée au moins d’une alimentation au moins modérée en lipides se retrouve dans certaines publis récentes (ex ci-dessous).

Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain
Stephen C. Cunnane *, Michael A. Crawford
Comparative biochemistry and physiology, 2003

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Man the Fat Hunter: The Demise of Homo erectus and the Emergence of a New Hominin Lineage in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 400 kyr) Levant
Miki Ben-Dor, Avi Gopher, Israel Hershkovitz, Ran Barkai, 2011.

Hype or Reality: Should Patients with Metabolic Syndrome-related NAFLD be on the Hunter-Gatherer (Paleo) Diet to Decrease Morbidity?
Giovanni Tarantino
Journal of gastrointestinal and liver disease, 2015

Cliquer pour accéder à 5638d98f08ae51ccb3cc9f38.pdf

Denise Minger sur les fruits sauvages :

Chez Sisson :

Paléo extrême