Blue zones

Ca fait mal si c’est vérifié :
Supercentenarians and the oldest-old are concentrated into regions with no birth certificates and short lifespans
Saul Justin Newman, 2019 (preprint)
In the United States, supercentenarian status is predicted by the absence of vital registration. The 15 state-specific introduction of birth certificates is associated with a 69-82% fall in the number of supercentenarian records. In Italy, which has more uniform vital registration, remarkable longevity is instead predicted by low per capita incomes and a short life expectancy. Finally, the designated ‘blue zones’ of Sardinia, Okinawa, and Ikaria corresponded to regions with low incomes, low literacy, high crime rate and short life expectancy relative to their national average. 20 As such, relative poverty and short lifespan constitute unexpected predictors of centenarian and supercentenarian status, and support a primary role of fraud and error in generating remarkable human age records.
Beyond Merroir : The Okinawan Taste for Clams
C. Anne Claus
Ici, on prend l’alimentation en 1949 (4 ans après la fin de la guerre, en pleine période de rationnement drastique à Okinawa, période très transitoire), comme modèle de l’alimentation de l’île pour toute la durée de vie des centenaires.

New Horizons: Dietary protein, ageing and the Okinawan ratio
David G. Le Couteur
et al.
Age and Ageing 2016.
https://academic.oup.com/ageing/article/45/4/443/1680839

Health Span Approximates Life Span Among Many Supercentenarians: Compression of Morbidity at the Approximate Limit of Life Span
Stacy L. Andersen et al.
The journals of gerontology, 2012
https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/article/67A/4/395/623695

 

We observed a progressive delay in the age of onset of physical and cognitive function impairment, age-related diseases, and overall morbidity with increasing age. As the limit of human life span was effectively approached with supercentenarians, compression of morbidity was generally observed.

 

Lifestyle and nutrition related to male longevity in Sardinia: An ecological study
G.M. Pes et al.
Nutrition, metabolism and cardiovascular diseases, 2011
https://www.nmcd-journal.com/article/S0939-4753(11)00132-3/pdf

History and characteristics of Okinawan longevity food
Director Hiroko Sho
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1440-6047.2001.00235.x

The Satsamu sweet potato provides the largest part of the energy intake (and contributes to self‐sufficiency), there is a wide array of plant foods including seaweed (especially konbu) and soy, and of herbaceous plants, accompanied by fish and pork, and by green tea and kohencha tea. Infusing multiple foodstuff and drinking the broth is characteristic.

Ici, on admet que les données de 1949 à Okinawa n’ont pas été publiées dans une revue à comité de lecture, et que celles de 1972 ne reflètent sans doute pas une alimentation traditionnelle. Mais on continuera à faire comme si.
Caloric Restriction, the TraditionalOkinawan Diet, and Healthy Aging
Willcox et al.
New York Academy of Sciences, 2007
http://www.hsph.jp/JT2009/documents/Caloric%20Restriction,%20the%20Traditional%20Okinawan%20Diet,%20and%20Healthy%20Aging.pdf
[…] to our knowl-edge no population-based dietary information has been reported in a peer-reviewed journal on Okinawan adults before the 1972 National Nutrition Sur-vey. Since the Japanese lifestyle underwent radical changes from the 1950s,18including changes in food choices, caloric intake, and energy expenditure, it isunlikely that the 1972 Japan National Nutrition Survey reflects the traditionalCR diet that may be implicated in Okinawan longevity.

L’évolution de la longévité à Okinawa, 1921-2000
Michel Poulain, Kusuto Naito
Cahiers québécois de démographie, 2005
https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/cqd/2004-v33-n1-cqd861/010851ar/

Pour de nombreux auteurs, l’alimentation est la cause principale de la plus faible mortalité des Japonais. Les recherches mettent en évidence le rôle bénéfique de la trilogie « poisson-riz-soja » ou, de façon un peu contradictoire, celui de l’occidentalisation de l’alimentation, notamment de la consommation accrue de nourriture de source animale. Takahashi (1993) et Goldman et Takahashi (1996) attribuent également au régime alimentaire l’avantage d’Okinawa au chapitre de la longévité. Okinawa, expliquent-ils, a connu un développement historique et culturel complètement différent de celui du Japon; durant l’ère Tokugawa, du début du 16e siècle à la moitié du 19e, les populations d’Okinawa consommaient de la viande, alors que le reste du Japon s’en abstenait, conformément aux traditions bouddhistes. Éloignée des îles principales du Japon, Okinawa est restée à l’écart des préceptes du bouddhisme, qui professe de ne pas tuer les animaux. On y consomme la viande de porc en quantité raisonnable, dégraissée (mijotée plutôt que grillée, la viande perd ses graisses mais non ses protéines).

 


La période sur laquelle les Willcox se basent comme modèle d’alimentation traditionnelle à Okinawa…

Military government in the Ryukyu islands, 1945-1950
Arnold G. Fish, Jr
Center of military history, United States Army, 1988
https://archive.org/stream/militarygovernme00arno/militarygovernme00arno_djvu.txt

The program to restore the livestock population made great strides,
but farm animals numbered only a fraction of prewar levels.
The crop situation was even worse. By 1949 Ryukyuan farm output was
at its lowest ebb.
[…]
They noted that Okinawa was in a « particularly deplorable state
agriculturally, with approximately one-fifth of its arable land
being used for military purposes. Charging that the services had used
farm land  »arbitrarily » and with no regard for its economic value,
they concluded that postwar agricultural reconstruction had been
extremely slow, in part because it had been hampered by a lack
of adequate policies.