Saul Justin Newman, 2019 (preprint)
In the United States, supercentenarian status is predicted by the absence of vital registration. The 15 state-specific introduction of birth certificates is associated with a 69-82% fall in the number of supercentenarian records. In Italy, which has more uniform vital registration, remarkable longevity is instead predicted by low per capita incomes and a short life expectancy. Finally, the designated ‘blue zones’ of Sardinia, Okinawa, and Ikaria corresponded to regions with low incomes, low literacy, high crime rate and short life expectancy relative to their national average. 20 As such, relative poverty and short lifespan constitute unexpected predictors of centenarian and supercentenarian status, and support a primary role of fraud and error in generating remarkable human age records.
New Horizons: Dietary protein, ageing and the Okinawan ratio
Age and Ageing 2016.
The longest living people are the residents of the
Japanese island of Okinawa, who have as many as five times
more centenarians than other developed nations . There
are many factors that contribute to their exceptional longevity
including mild caloric restriction, food quality, genes and
physical activity. The energy from their diets was derived
from 9% protein and 85% carbohydrates  (Figure 1).
Les affirmations sur l’alimentation des Sardes font beaucoup rire les chercheurs de l’Université de Sassari spécialistes de la blue zone sarde, avec lesquels nous travaillons à l’Université de Corse. Apparemment, les auteurs n’ont pas vu le fromage, la charcuterie et la chasse omniprésents dans la région.
Lessons From the World’s Longest Lived
Dan Buettner & Sam Skemp
American journal of lifestyle medicine, 2016
What began as a National Geographic expedition, lead by Dan Buettner, to uncover the secrets of longevity, evolved into the discovery of the 5 places around the world where people consistently live over 100 years old, dubbed the Blue Zones. Dan and his team of demographers, scientist and anthropologists were able to distill the evidence-based common denominators of these Blue Zones into 9 commonalities that they call the Power 9. They have since taken these principles into communities across the United States working with policy makers, local businesses, schools and individuals to shape the environments of the Blue Zones Project Communities. What has been found is that putting the responsibility of curating a healthy environment on an individual does not work, but through policy and environmental changes the Blue Zones Project Communities have been able to increase life expectancy, reduce obesity and make the healthy choice the easy choice for millions of Americans.
Michel Poulain et al.
Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 2013
Health Span Approximates Life Span Among Many Supercentenarians: Compression of Morbidity at the Approximate Limit of Life Span
Stacy L. Andersen et al.
The journals of gerontology, 2012
We observed a progressive delay in the age of onset of physical and cognitive function impairment, age-related diseases, and overall morbidity with increasing age. As the limit of human life span was effectively approached with supercentenarians, compression of morbidity was generally observed.
G.M. Pes et al.
Nutrition, metabolism and cardiovascular diseases, 2011
Most nutritional variables do not show any significant difference between these two areas whereas a significant difference was found with respect to pastoralism (P = 0.0001), physical activity estimated by the average slope of the territory in each municipality (P = 0.0001), and average daily distance required by the active population to reach the usual workplace
History and characteristics of Okinawan longevity food
Director Hiroko Sho
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008
The Satsamu sweet potato provides the largest part of the energy intake (and contributes to self‐sufficiency), there is a wide array of plant foods including seaweed (especially konbu) and soy, and of herbaceous plants, accompanied by fish and pork, and by green tea and kohencha tea. Infusing multiple foodstuff and drinking the broth is characteristic.
Dietary Patterns and Longevity
Expanding the Blue Zones
Lawrence J. Appel.
American heart association journals, 2008
Equally notable is the wide variation in other aspects of healthy diets, particularly macronutrient intake. Traditional Okinawan diets provide ≥90% of calories from carbohydrate (predominantly from vegetables), whereas the traditional Mediterranean diet provides >40% of calories from fat, mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat.
Willcox et al.
New York Academy of Sciences, 2007
[…] to our knowl-edge no population-based dietary information has been reported in a peer-reviewed journal on Okinawan adults before the 1972 National Nutrition Sur-vey. Since the Japanese lifestyle underwent radical changes from the 1950s, including changes in food choices, caloric intake, and energy expenditure, it isunlikely that the 1972 Japan National Nutrition Survey reflects the traditional diet that may be implicated in Okinawan longevity.
L’évolution de la longévité à Okinawa, 1921-2000
Michel Poulain, Kusuto Naito
Cahiers québécois de démographie, 2005
Pour de nombreux auteurs, l’alimentation est la cause principale de la plus faible mortalité des Japonais. Les recherches mettent en évidence le rôle bénéfique de la trilogie « poisson-riz-soja » ou, de façon un peu contradictoire, celui de l’occidentalisation de l’alimentation, notamment de la consommation accrue de nourriture de source animale. Takahashi (1993) et Goldman et Takahashi (1996) attribuent également au régime alimentaire l’avantage d’Okinawa au chapitre de la longévité. Okinawa, expliquent-ils, a connu un développement historique et culturel complètement différent de celui du Japon; durant l’ère Tokugawa, du début du 16e siècle à la moitié du 19e, les populations d’Okinawa consommaient de la viande, alors que le reste du Japon s’en abstenait, conformément aux traditions bouddhistes. Éloignée des îles principales du Japon, Okinawa est restée à l’écart des préceptes du bouddhisme, qui professe de ne pas tuer les animaux. On y consomme la viande de porc en quantité raisonnable, dégraissée (mijotée plutôt que grillée, la viande perd ses graisses mais non ses protéines).
La période sur laquelle les Willcox se basent comme modèle d’alimentation traditionnelle à Okinawa…
Military government in the Ryukyu islands, 1945-1950
Arnold G. Fish, Jr
Center of military history, United States Army, 1988
The program to restore the livestock population made great strides,
but farm animals numbered only a fraction of prewar levels.
The crop situation was even worse. By 1949 Ryukyuan farm output was
at its lowest ebb.
They noted that Okinawa was in a « particularly deplorable state
agriculturally, with approximately one-fifth of its arable land
being used for military purposes. Charging that the services had used
farm land »arbitrarily » and with no regard for its economic value,
they concluded that postwar agricultural reconstruction had been
extremely slow, in part because it had been hampered by a lack
of adequate policies.