Elevage, sécurité alimentaire, malnutrition

Pour une revue beaucoup plus complète des connaissances scientifiques liées à l’élevage, voir le site [ALEPH2020] (il est possible d’avoir une traduction presque correcte des pages en français en choisissant cette langue en bas des articles).

1. Elevage, sécurité alimentaire et problématiques environnementales
2. Aliments d’origine animale dans la lutte contre la malnutrition


Élevage, sécurité alimentaire et problématiques environnementales

Livelihood, Food and Nutrition Security in Southern Africa: What Role Do Indigenous Cattle Genetic Resources Play? [Texte]
Mapiye et al.
Diversity, 2020

Of the 345 million people in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), 30.6% are severely food insecure, 8% malnourished and 50% live with less than US $1 per day, respectively. Livelihood, food and nutrition security have, therefore, become key priorities for the SADC region in response to these complex challenges. Given that 70% of the SADC population directly rely on agriculture for food, nutrition and income, sustained agricultural productivity may play an important role in achieving livelihood, food and nutrition security in the region. Being an important part of the agri-food system of marginalised communities in the region, cattle have great potential to contribute to the goal of reducing food and nutrition insecurity. The region has a population size of about 64 million cattle of which 75% of the population is kept under the smallholder farming systems, and primarily composed of indigenous tropical breeds. Most indigenous cattle breeds are, however, either undergoing rapid genetic dilution or at risk of extinction. At the same time, their environments, production and marketing systems are experiencing high rates of change in time and space. More importantly, indigenous cattle breeds in the region are undervalued. This makes it uncertain that future systems will have the adapted cattle breeds required for optimal livelihoods, food and nutrition security. To this end, the promotion of sustainable use of indigenous cattle for livelihood, food and nutrition security in the SADC region is strongly recommended.

Animal source foods: Sustainability problem or malnutrition and sustainability solution? Perspective matters [Texte]
Adesogan et al.
Global food security, 2019

Globally, two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies, 151 million children under five suffer from stunting, and millions more have impaired cognitive development related to poor nutrition. This is partly due to insufficient consumption of animal-sourced foods (ASF), which supply multiple bioavailable nutrients that are lacking in the cereal-based diets of the poor. Yet, reports like the one recently published by the EAT-Lancet Commission, solely focus on the threat of ASF consumption on sustainability and human health, overestimate and ignore the tremendous variability in the environmental impact of livestock production, and fail to adequately include the experience of marginalized women and children in low- and middle-income countries whose diets regularly lack the necessary nutrients. Yet animal-source foods have been described by the World Health Organization as the best source of high-quality nutrient-rich food for children aged 6–23 months. Livestock and ASF are vital to sustainability as they play a critical role in improving nutrition, reducing poverty, improving gender equity, improving livelihoods, increasing food security, and improving health. The nutritional needs of the world’s poor, particularly women and children, must be considered in sustainability debates

Leveraging human nutrition through livestock interventions: Perceptions, knowledge, barriers and opportunities in the Sahel [Abstract]
Dominguez-Salas et al.
ISI journal, 2019

There was agreement among stakeholders on the importance of livestock and ASF to improve human nutrition, and on the prominent disconnect whereby livestock interventions often neglect human nutritional goals, due to the complexity of impact pathways and the multiple roles of livestock in livelihoods.

The consequences of replacing wildlife with livestock in Africa [Texte]
Hempson et al.
Nature scientific reports, 2017

Our analyses reveal pronounced herbivore biomass losses in wetter areas and substantial biomass increases and functional type turnover in arid regions. Fire prevalence is likely to have been altered over vast areas where grazer biomass has transitioned to above or below the threshold at which grass fuel reduction can suppress fire. Overall, shifts in the functional composition of herbivore communities promote an expansion of woody cover. Total herbivore methane emissions have more than doubled, but lateral nutrient diffusion capacity is below 5% of past levels. The release of fundamental ecological constraints on herbivore communities in arid regions appears to pose greater threats to ecosystem function than do biomass losses in mesic regions, where fire remains the major consumer.

Autre problème du conflit élevage/vie sauvage : la chasse dans certaines régions du globe met de nombreuses espèces en danger. De même que l’extension de l’élevage. Mais réduire l’élevage augmenterait sans doute la pression de la chasse, toutes choses égales par ailleurs.

Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world’s mammals [Texte]
Ripple et al.
Royal society open science, 2016

Regions with the most species threatened by hunting include Asia (especially SE Asia) and Africa.
Countries with the most endemic species threatened by hunting include Madagascar, Indonesia, Philippines, Brazil, Papua New Guinea, India and China.
Species affected by severe hunting are also often victims of habitat deterioration, expanding agriculture, human settlement encroachment and livestock competition.

Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security [Texte]
Reynolds et al.
The Journal of Nutrition, 2015

A conservative projection shows the world’s population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet.

Livestock – a driving force for food security and sustainable development [Texte]
Sansoucy, R.
FAO, 1995

« Development will bring food security only if it is people-centred, if it is environmentally sound, if it is participatory, and if it builds local and national capacity for self-reliance. These are the basic characteristics of sustainable human development. »- James Gustave Speltz (UNDP, 1994)


Aliments d’origine animale dans la lutte contre la malnutrition

Animal-source foods as a suitable complementary food for improved physical growth in 6 to 24-month-old children in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials [PDF]
Asare et al.
British journal of nutrition, 2022

Animal-based food supplementation resulted in a higher length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) compared to the control group, with random effect sizes estimates of 0.15 (95% CI = 0.02, 0.27) and 0.20 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.36). Results were confirmed after influence analyses, and publication bias resulted as negligible. We observed an increased effect on LAZ and WAZ when the food supplementation was based on egg (effect size = 0.31 (95% CI = −0.03, 0.64) and 0.36 (95% CI = −0.03, 0.75) for LAZ and WAZ, respectively).

Animal source foods, rich in essential amino acids, are important for linear growth and development of young children in low- and middle-income countries [Texte]
Parikh et al.
Maternal & child nutrition, 2021

Many children in LMICs, who experience growth faltering, have inadequate levels of essential amino acids partly attributable to poor protein quality of their diets. Inclusion of animal source foods is encouraged to improve the quality of predominantly cereal/vegetal-based diets.

Promotion of Egg and Eggshell Powder Consumption on the
Nutritional Status of Young Children in Ethiopia [PDF]

Omer et al.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition Research, 2019

Egg and ESP consumption in Intervention children averaged 17 days/month compared to < 1 in Controls.
KAP of mothers improved only in the intervention group (p<0.001). No true egg allergy occurred, however, 7.5% of
Intervention children were sensitive to eggs. Linear regression analysis showed the egg+ESP intervention increased
weightforage zscore by 0.24 (95% CI, 0.110.37) and reduced underweight (RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.160.74). Stunting
prevalence increased in both groups, but by 28 % less in the treatment group (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.530.98) compared
with control. Mean hemoglobin increased and anemia decreased in both groups, however, much greater anemia
reduction [52% (RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.96)] was seen in the treatment group

The effect of eggs on early child growth in rural Malawi: the
Mazira Project randomized controlled trial [Texte]
Stewart et al.
American journal of clinical nutrition, 2019

There was no intervention effect on length-for-age, weight-for-age, or weight-for-length z scores. There was a significantly higher head circumference for age z score of 0.18 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.34) in the egg group compared with the control group. There was a significant interaction with maternal education (P = 0.024), with an effect on length-for-age z score only among children whose mothers had higher education.

Conclusions

The provision of 1 egg per day to children in rural Malawi had no overall effect on linear growth. A background diet rich in animal source foods and low prevalence of stunting at baseline may have limited the potential impact.

The influence of livestock-derived foods on nutrition during the first 1,000 days of life [PDF]
Grace et al.
CGIAR, 2018

Eggs in early complementary feeding and child growth: A randomized controlled trial [PDF]
Ianotti et al.
Pediatrics, 2017

RESULTS: Mothers or other caregivers reported no allergic reactions to the eggs. Generalized linear regression modeling showed the egg intervention increased length-for-age z score by 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38–0.88) and weight-for-age z score by 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45–0.77). Log-binomial models with robust Poisson indicated a reduced prevalence ofby 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38–0.88) and weight-for-age z score by 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45–0.77). Log-binomial models with robust Poisson indicated a reduced prevalence of stunting by 47% (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37–0.77) and underweight by 74% (PR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10–0.70). Children in the treatment group had higher dietary intakes of eggs (PR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.28–1.92) and reduced intake of sugar-sweetened foods (PR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51–0.97) compared with control.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings supported our hypothesis that early introduction of eggs significantly improved growth in young children. Generally accessible to vulnerable groups, eggs have the potential to contribute to global targets to reduce stunting.

The effect of egg supplementation in growth parameters in children participating in a school feeding program in rural Uganda: a pilot study [PDF]
Baum et al.
Food and nutrition research, 2017

Methods
: Children (ages 6–9; n = 241) were recruited from three different schools located throughout the Kitgum District of Uganda. All participants in the same school received the same dietary intervention: control (no eggs (0 eggs); n = 56), one egg five days per week (1 egg; n = 89), or two eggs five days per week (2 eggs; n = 96). Height, weight, tricep skinfold thickness (TSF), and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured monthly over 6 months.
Results
: Following six months of egg supplementation, participants receiving 2 eggs had a greater increase in height and weight compared to the 0 eggs and 1 egg groups (P < 0.05). In addition, participants receiving 1 egg and 2 eggs had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) increase in MUAC at six months compared to 0 eggs.
Conclusion
: These results suggest that supplementation with eggs can improve parameters of growth in school-aged children participating in school feeding programs in rural Uganda.

Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial [PDF]
Hulett et al.
British journal of nutrition, 2014

Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English,
Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B12, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement.

Meat supplementation increases arm muscle area in Kenyan schoolchildren [Texte]
Neumann et al.
British journal of nutrition, 2012

This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart. Children in each cohort were given feedings at school and studied for three school terms per year over 2 years, a total of 9 months per year: cohort I from 1998 to 2000 and cohort II from 1999 to 2001. Food intake was assessed by 24 h recall every 1–2 months and biochemical analysis for micronutrient status conducted annually (in cohort I only). Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). Mid-upper-arm muscle area (MAMA) and mid-upper-arm fat area (MAFA) were calculated. The two cohorts were combined for analyses. The meat group showed the steepest rates of gain in MUAC and MAMA over time, and the milk group showed the next largest significant MUAC and MAMA gain compared with the plain githeri and control groups (P< 0·05). The meat group showed the least increase in TSF and MAFA of all groups. These findings have implications for increasing micronutrient intake and lean body mass in primary schoolchildren consuming vegetarian diets.

Milk Matters. A Literature Review of Pastoralist Nutrition and Programming Responses [PDF]
Sadler et al, 2009

This review highlights the ongoing problem of child malnutrition in pastoral areas of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly during drought years when access to milk is significantly reduced. It discusses the importance of milk and milk products in the diets of pastoralists and the critical contribution it makes to improving dietary quality for women and young children. There are many challenges however to ensuring a sufficient and constant supply of milk in pastoral communities. These include the impact that more frequent drought and animal disease has on milk supply and the increasing trend of settlement and commercialization in some areas.

Meat Supplementation Improves Growth, Cognitive, and Behavioral Outcomes in Kenyan Children [Texte]
Neumann et al.
The journal of nutrition, 2007

Findings from the 3-country Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program (NCRSP) study in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico during the mid 1980s stimulated the study reported here. The NCRSP longitudinal observational study of “energy intake and human function” found positive associations between meat intake and physical growth, cognitive function, school performance, physical activity, and social behaviors, particularly in the Kenya study.
[…]This is the first randomized, controlled feeding intervention study with meat supplementation to show a causal set of positive relationships between meat and milk intake and important functional outcomes in children: improved cognitive performance; increased high levels of PA; increased initiative and leadership behaviors; and increased MAMA. Milk supplementation resulted in improved linear growth in younger and already stunted children. Compared with the Control group, all supplemented groups improved overall weight gain, suggesting a chronic energy deficit and inadequate energy intake for any catch-up growth.

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