Lait et produits laitiers

Mortalité globale

Les méta-analyses ne suggèrent en général pas de relation significative entre mortalité globale et consommation de produits laitiers. Pour celles qui en trouvent, les associations sont généralement faibles. Des biais de publication pourraient en revanche sous-estimer certains risques pour des consommations importantes.

Problèmes cardiovasculaires

Cancers
Globalement pas d’association significative, sauf pour certains cancers : association positive pour le cancer de la prostate chez l’homme, pour les cancers gastriques, mais association négative pour les cancers colorectaux.

Maladies auto-immunes : je cherche.

Une association entre consommation de produits laitiers et acné semble possible.
La protection contre les fractures est au mieux modeste.

Mécanismes proposés.
Intolérance au lactose.
Facteurs de croissance comme l’IGF1 qui stimulerait la croissance de cancers.
Les protéines du lait, notamment la caséine, pourraient stimuler aussi la croissance de cancers.
Chez certaines personnes, la dégradation de l’état des intestins, par exemple, par perturbation de la zonuline, pourrait laisser passer des molécules qui devraient normalement être filtrées. Les composants du lait pourraient à la fois dégrader la zonuline et passer anormalement dans l’organisme. Insuline bovine.
Insuline bovine pourrait déclencher réaction auto-immune, diabète de type 1.
Beta caséine A1 et A2.


Dairy consumption and risks of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Jin et al.
American association for cancer research, 2020
https://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2020/08/27/1055-9965.EPI-20-0127.abstract

We identified 31 prospective cohort studies, which included 24,964 and 2,302 cases for colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, respectively. The pooled RR of colorectal cancer incidence for the highest versus lowest categories of total dairy consumption was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.85). For milk consumption, there was also a significant inverse association (RR: 0.81; 95% CI, 0.76-0.86). For cheese and fermented milk consumption, overall no association was found, but studies conducted in Europe showed a significant inverse association of cheese (RR: 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.97) and fermented milk consumption (RR: 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98). For colorectal cancer mortality, we found 29% lower risk of death from colorectal cancer in subjects with high dairy consumption compared to those with low intakes of dairy products (RR: 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.93), but each type of dairy consumption did not show a significant association. Conclusions: High dairy consumption was associated with lower incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Impact: Our findings suggest that high dairy consumption may be associated with lower colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, but further studies are warranted.

Consumption of milk and dairy products and risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture: a systematic review and Meta-analysis
Malmir et al.
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 2020
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2019.1590800

Total dairy intake was protectively associated with reduced risk of osteoporosis based on cross-sectional and case-control studies (0.63; 95% CI: 0.55–0.73). Milk consumption was not associated with the risk of osteoporosis (overall RR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.57–1.08). In non-linear dose–response meta-analysis, increase intake of dairy (at the level of 0 to 250 grams per day) was associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis (Pnonlinearty = 0.005). Meta-regression of included studies revealed an inverse linear association between dairy and milk intake and risk of osteoporosis; such that every additional 200-gram intake of dairy and milk was associated with a 22% and 37% reduced risk of osteoporosis, respectively. In terms of hip fracture, milk consumption was associated with a 25% reduced risk of hip fracture only in cross-sectional and case-control studies (overall RR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.57–0.99). In linear meta-regression, every additional 200-gram milk intake per day was associated with a 9% greater risk of hip fracture in cohort studies.
[…] Given the advantages of the cohort over case-control studies, we concluded that a greater intake of milk and dairy products was not associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture

Consumption of dairy product and its association with total and cause specific mortality – A population-based cohort study and meta-analysis
Mazidi et al.
Clinical nutrition, 2019
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261561418325834?casa_token=iOOd9b0jecwAAAAA:4q519gSM44pxbuL1WR1NwZDtSTn4SuDc_cWnfRuOp1RAIfIQGC6E5dEaEQ5Ut54o9AVkcvU0Sw

The meta-analysis with 636,726 participants indicated a significant inverse association between fermented dairy products and total mortality (RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96–0.99), while milk consumption was associated with higher CHD mortality (RR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.05).

Milk and dairy products consumption and the risk of oral or oropharyngeal cancer: a meta-analysis
Yuan et al.
Bioscience reports, 2019
https://portlandpress.com/bioscirep/article/39/12/BSR20193526/221378/Milk-and-dairy-products-consumption-and-the-risk

The present meta-analysis was conducted to explore the role of milk and dairy products consumption on oral or oropharyngeal cancer risk. PubMed, Embase and Chinese Wanfang databases were investigated until 30 June 2019. The overall and subgroup associations were pooled with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). As a result, the present study involving 4635 cases and 50777 participants from 12 publications suggested that an inverse association was found between milk and dairy products consumption and oral or oropharyngeal cancer risk (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.59–0.92; I2 = 65.9%, Pfor heterogeneity=0.001). Four studies reported milk consumption on oral cancer risk, but no significant association was found (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.61–1.37). Six studies about milk consumption and oropharyngeal cancer risk found that there was a positive association between them (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.44–0.90). In conclusion, findings from our meta-analysis indicated that milk and dairy products consumption may be associated with decreased risk of oral or oropharyngeal cancer.

Milk and yogurt intake and breast cancer risk
A meta-analysis
Chen et al.
Medicine, 2019
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6709252/

the results of all milk models and the available epidemiologic evidence do not support a strong association between the consumption of milk or milk products and breast cancer risk. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are needed to validate the relationship of dairy food intake and breast cancer.

Milk and yogurt breast cancer chen 2019

Dairy intake and acne development: A meta-analysis of observational studies
Aghasi et al.
Clinical nutrition, 2019
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261561418301663?casa_token=dYT1-Awmpc8AAAAA:3qcvXhdzrVXMdYdo3xlvXa_f3bdt1x72_gS6-9CvyS73oj2vrz7Jk9FcYQHnRrTIAiH_hK4iWw

Highest compared with lowest category of dairy (OR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.20 to 5.67), total milk (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.31 to 1.66), low-fat milk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.43) and skim milk (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.47) intake significantly was associated with the presence of acne. Results of dose–response analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between dairy, whole milk and skim milk and risk of acne and nonlinear association between dairy, milk, low-fat milk and skim milk intake and acne.

Dairy product consumption and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Bian et al.
BMC public health, 2018
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-018-5041-5

After pooling the data from the included studies, the summary relative risk (RR) for hip fracture for highest versus lowest consumption were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.74–1.12), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66–0.86), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.61–0. 77), 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93–1.12) for milk, yogurt, cheese, and total dairy products in cohort studies, respectively. Higher milk consumption [Odds ratio (OR), 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55–0. 91] was associated with lower risk of hip fracture for highest versus lowest consumption in case-control studies. After quantifying the specific dose of milk, the summary RR/OR for an increased milk consumption of 200 g/day was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.94–1.07), and 0.89 (95%CI: 0.64–1.24) with significant heterogeneity for cohort and case-control studies, respectively; There was a nonlinear association between milk consumption and hip fracture risk in cohort, and case-control studies.

Conclusions

Our findings indicate that consumption of yogurt and cheese was associated with lower risk of hip fracture in cohort studies. However, the consumption of total dairy products and cream was not significantly associated with the risk of hip fracture.

Milk/dairy products consumption and gastric cancer: an update meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
Wang et al.
Oncotarget, 2018
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805541/

The odds ratio for the overall association between dairy consumption and gastric cancer was 1.20 (95%confidence interval: 1.04–1.39). The combined risk estimate was similar for population-based case-control studies (odds ratio = 1.27, 95%confidence interval: 1.00–1.61), but was reduced for hospital-based studies (odds ratio = 1.22; 95%confidence interval: 0.95–1.57) and cohort studies (odds ratio = 0.99; 95%confidence interval: 0.77–1.28). There was high heterogeneity in overall analyses. In the population-based subgroup analyses, the odds ratio was 0.96 (95%confidence interval: 0.69–1.34) when considering five studies assessing exposure two or more years before interview, and the association strengthened (odds ratio = 1.91, 95%confidence interval: 1.60–2.28) when dairy consumption was evaluated one year or less prior to interview. In conclusion, we found adverse effect of dairy consumption associated with gastric cancer.

Dairy Intake and Acne Vulgaris: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 78,529 Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Juhl et al
Nutrients, 2018
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/8/1049

We included 14 studies (n = 78,529; 23,046 acne-cases/55,483 controls) aged 7–30 years. ORs for acne were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.15–1.36; p = 6.13 × 10−8) for any dairy, 1.22 (1.08–1.38; p = 1.62 × 10−3) for full-fat dairy, 1.28 (1.13–1.44; p = 8.23 × 10−5) for any milk, 1.22 (1.06–1.41; p = 6.66 × 10−3) for whole milk, 1.32 (1.16–1.52; p = 4.33 × 10−5) for low-fat/skim milk, 1.22 (1.00–1.50; p = 5.21 × 10−2) for cheese, and 1.36 (1.05–1.77; p = 2.21 × 10−2) for yogurt compared to no intake. ORs per frequency of any milk intake were 1.24 (0.95–1.62) by 2–6 glasses per week, 1.41 (1.05–1.90) by 1 glass per day, and 1.43 (1.09–1.88) by ≥2 glasses per day compared to intake less than weekly. Adjusted results were attenuated and compared unadjusted. There was publication bias (p = 4.71 × 10−3), and heterogeneity in the meta-analyses were explained by dairy and study characteristics. In conclusion, any dairy, such as milk, yogurt, and cheese, was associated with an increased OR for acne in individuals aged 7–30 years. However, results should be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity and bias across studies.

Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases
and all-cause mortality: dose–response meta-analysis
of prospective cohort studies

Guo et al.
European journal of epidemiology, 2017
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10654-017-0243-1?wt_mc=Affiliate.CommissionJunction.Authors.3.EPR1089.DeepLink&utm_medium=affiliate&utm_source=commission_junction_authors&utm_campaign=3_nsn6445_deeplink&utm_content=deeplink?wt_mc=Affiliate.CommissionJunction.Authors.3.EPR1089.DeepLink&utm_medium=affiliate&utm_source=commission_junction_authors&utm_campaign=3_nsn6445_deeplink&utm_content=deeplink&utm_term=3987228

A total of 29 cohort studies were available for meta-analysis, with 938,465 participants and 93,158 mortality, 28,419 CHD and 25,416 CVD cases. No associations were found for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, and milk with the health outcomes of mortality, CHD or CVD. Inverse associations were found between total fermented dairy (included sour milk products, cheese or yogurt; per 20 g/day) with mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99; I2 = 94.4%) and CVD risk (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99; I2 = 87.5%). Further analyses of individual fermented dairy of cheese and yogurt showed cheese to have a 2% lower risk of CVD (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95–1.00; I2 = 82.6%) per 10 g/day, but not yogurt.


Daily milk consumption and all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease and
stroke: a systematic review and metaanalysis of observational cohort studies
Mullier et al.
BMC public health, 2016
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-016-3889-9

Twenty-one studies involving 19 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis, 11 on all-cause mortality, 9 on coronary heart disease, and 10 on stroke. Milk intake ranged from 0 to 850 mL/d. The summary relative risk (SRR) for 200 mL/d milk consumption was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96–1.06) for all-cause mortality, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.98–1.05) for fatal and non fatal coronary heart disease, and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.82–1.02) for fatal and non fatal stroke. Stratified analyses by age, Body Mass Index, total energy intake and physical acitivity did not alter the SRR estimates. The possibility of publication bias was found for all cause mortality and for stroke, indicating a gap in data that could have suggested a higher risk of these conditions with increased milk consumption.

Conclusions

We found no evidence for a decreased or increased risk of all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease, and stroke associated with adult milk consumption. However, the possibility cannot be dismissed that risks associated with milk consumption could be underestimated because of publication bias.

Dairy products intake and cancer mortality risk: a meta-analysis of 11 population-based cohort studies
Lu et al.
Nutrition journal, 2016
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12937-016-0210-9

Total dairy products intake was not associated with all cancer mortality risk, with the pooled RR of 0.99 (95 % CI 0.92–1.07, p = 0.893). Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled RRs were 0.97 (95 % CI 0.92–1.03, p = 0.314) for milk, 0.88 (95 % CI 0.71–1.10, p = 0.271) for yogurt, 1.23 (95 % CI 0.94–1.61, p = 0.127) for cheese and 1.13 (95 % CI 0.89–1.44, p = 0.317) for butter in male and female, however the pooled RR was 1.50 (95 % CI 1.03–2.17, p = 0.032) for whole milk in male, which was limited to prostate cancer. Further dose–response analyses were performed and we found that increase of whole milk (serving/day) induced elevated prostate cancer mortality risk significantly, with the RR of 1.43 (95 % CI 1.13–1.81, p = 0.003).