Produits laitiers et acides gras

Il a longtemps été admis que les produits laitiers entiers (full-fat, whole-fat) étaient plus susceptibles de causer des problèmes de santé que les produits laitiers partiellement ou totalement écrémés. Le consensus semble se fragiliser ces dernières années. Il est possible que la focalisation sur les acides gras saturés n’ait pas pris en compte les différences de dangerosité entre différentes molécules d’acides gras saturés, la perte de nutriments associée à la suppression d’acides gras, et la matrice alimentaire.

Note : de nombreuses études sont financées par l’industrie laitière. Cette industrie peut avoir intérêt à apporter du doute sur la dangerosité globale des produits laitiers, et sur les acides gras saturés. D’un autre côté, l’industrie pourrait ne pas avoir intérêt à promouvoir les produits entiers (elle utilise les lipides extraits des produits allégés pour d’autres activités lucratives, et les produits entiers sont majoritaires dans la fraction de la production de produits laitiers qui reste artisanale). Je n’exclus donc pas ces études, elles ne sont pas forcément malhonnêtes, et elles sont publiées dans des revues à comité de lecture, mais je signale les financements.

Cardiometabolic health benefits of dairy-milk polar lipids [Texte]
Bruno et al.
Nutrition reviews, 2021
[Financement partiel industrie laitière]

Whole-fat dairy products do not adversely affect adiposity or cardiometabolic risk factors in children in the Milky Way Study: a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study [Texte]
Nicholl et al.
American journal of clinical nutrition, 2021
[Financement industrie laitière]

Our results suggest that although changing from whole-fat to reduced-fat dairy products does reduce dairy fat intake, it does not result in changes to markers of adiposity or cardiometabolic disease risk in healthy children.

Biomarkers of dairy fat intake, incident cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: A cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis [Texte]
Trieu et al.
Plos Medicine, 2021
[Financement semble ok]

In a meta-analysis of 18 observational studies including our new cohort study, higher levels of 15:0 and 17:0 were associated with lower CVD risk. Our findings support the need for clinical and experimental studies to elucidate the causality of these relationships and relevant biological mechanisms.

Impact of low-fat and full-fat dairy foods on fasting lipid profile and blood pressure: exploratory endpoints of a randomized controlled trial [Abstract]
Schmidt et al.
The american journal of clinical nutrition, 2021
[Financements industrie laitière]

In men and women with metabolic syndrome, a diet rich in full-fat dairy had no effects on fasting lipid profile or blood pressure compared with diets limited in dairy or rich in low-fat dairy. Therefore, dairy fat, when consumed as part of complex whole foods, does not adversely impact these classic CVD risk factors.

Total, low-fat, and full-fat dairy consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome among workers [Texte]
Yoko et al.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN, 2021
[Financement « Industrial health fundation »]

Our results suggest that higher intake of full-fat, but not low-fat, dairy products may be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese.

Whole-Fat or Reduced-Fat Dairy Product Intake, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Health in Children: A Systematic Review [Texte]
O’Sullivan et al.
Advances in nutrition, 2020
[Financement public, liens d’intérêt personnels avec l’industrie laitière]

Taken as a whole, the limited literature in this field is not consistent with dietary guidelines recommending that children consume preferably reduced-fat dairy products.

Potential Cardiometabolic Health Benefits of Full-Fat Dairy: The Evidence Base [Texte]
Hirahatake et al.
Advances in nutrition, 2020
[Financement industrie laitière]

Thus, although low-fat dairy is a practical, practice-based recommendation, its superiority compared with full-fat dairy is not obviously supported by results from recent prospective cohort studies or intervention trials.

Association of dairy consumption with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes in 147 812 individuals from 21 countries [Texte]
Bhavadharini et al.
British medical journal, 2020
[Financement public + fondations, quelques liens avec industrie]

Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.

Effects of Full-Fat and Fermented Dairy Products on Cardiometabolic Disease: Food Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts [Texte]
Astrup et al.
Advances in nutrition, 2019
[Financement Danone]

Therefore, the suggestion to restrict or eliminate full-fat dairy from the diet may not be the optimal strategy for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk and should be re-evaluated in light of recent evidence.

Dairy Fat Consumption and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: An Examination of the Saturated Fatty Acids in Dairy [PDF]
Unger et al.
Nutrients, 2019
[Financement industrie laitière (National dairy council)]

In summary, previous work on the impact of dairy-derived SFA consumption on disease risk suggests that there is currently insufficient evidence to support current dietary guidelines which consolidate all dietary SFA into a single group of nutrients whose consumption should be reduced, regardless of dietary source, food matrix, and composition.

Dairy Foods, Obesity, and Metabolic Health: The Role of the Food Matrix Compared with Single Nutrients [Texte]
Dariush Mozaffarian
Advances in nutrition, 2019
[Financement Danone]

Dairy Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: Do We Really Need to Be Concerned? [PDF]
Lordan et al.
Foods, 2018
[Financement public (Irlande)]

consumption of full-fat dairy products contributes to higher intakes of significant nutrients, in particular vitamin D and vitamin K. Considering current scientific evidence, after years of controversy the negative image of milk fat is weakening. Therefore, consumers can continue to moderately consume full-fat dairy products as part of a healthy and balanced lifestyle, however fermented dairy products would be preferential for optimum nutrient intake and potential cardiovascular health benefits. The authors suggest that less emphasis is needed on the impact of milk and dairy product consumption on serum cholesterol levels but more emphasis should be placed on inflammatory biomarkers to elucidate the cardioprotective mechanisms of dairy products.

Total and Full-Fat, but Not Low-Fat, Dairy Product Intakes are Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Adults [Texte]
Drehmer et al.
The journal of nutrition, 2015
[Financement public (Brésil)]

Total and especially full-fat dairy food intakes are inversely and independently associated with metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older adults, associations that seem to be mediated by dairy saturated fatty acids. Dietary recommendations to avoid full-fat dairy intake are not supported by our findings.

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