Réseaux et migrations préhistoriques

Variability in the organization and size of hunter-gatherer groups: Foragers do not live in small-scale societies
Bird et al.
Journal of human evolution, 2019
The number of individuals in a foraging group varies with habitat quality, but in a dynamic
way, as group size is shaped by ecological legacies of land use. The flexible size and composition of
foraging groups link individuals across their “estates”: spatially explicit storehouses of ritual and
relational wealth, inherited across generations through maintaining expansive networks of social
interaction in a large and complex society. We propose that human cognition is tied to development of
such expansive social relationships and co-evolved with dynamic socio-ecological interactions expressed
in large-scale networks of relational wealth.
The past half century has seen a move from a multiregionalist view of human origins to widespread acceptance
that modern humans emerged in Africa. Here the authors argue that a simple out-ofAfrica model is also outdated,
and that the current state of the evidence favours a structured African metapopulation model of human origins.

Hunter-gatherers adjust mobility to maintain contact under climatic variation
Matt Grove
Journal of archeological science, 2018

Results suggest that the previously established strong reciprocal relationship between population density and mobility is not due purely to common determination by climatic variables. Instead, the best supported model is consistent with the hypothesis that hunter-gatherers adjust levels of mobility so as to maintain contact with neighbouring groups at varying population densities. This ensures that opportunities for cultural transmission are maintained at similar levels regardless of climatic variation. The results lead to a number of archaeologically testable predictions concerning the relationships between climatic variables, population density, mobility, and assemblage complexity.

Female exogamy and gene pool diversification at the transition from the Final Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in central Europe
Knipper et al.
PNAS, 2017

We demonstrate that a simple notion of “migration” cannot explain the complex human mobility of third millennium BCE societies in Eurasia. On the contrary, it appears that part of what archaeologists understand as migration is the result of large-scale institutionalized and possibly sex- and age-related individual mobility.

The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa
Hervella et al.
Nature Scientific reports, 2016
Social networks and connectivity among the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic foragers of the Balkans and Italy
Dusan Boric & Emanuela Cristini, 2016

In this paper, we aim to highlight particular examples of connectivity across large tracks of land during the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic and to point out the potential
that social network thinking has in the study of the Balkans and Italy.

Les réseaux sociaux à l’époque gravettienne
Luc Moreau
Pour la Science, 2012

À partir des indices retrouvés dans divers sites gravettiens, nous allons montrer que ces marcheurs infatigables entretenaient des réseaux d’échanges à grande distance par lesquels circulaient perles et ressources diverses, mais aussi des idées, et sans doute des femmes…
Human population dispersal ‘‘Out of Africa’’estimated from linkage disequilibrium and allele frequencies of SNPs
McEvoy et al.
Genome research, 2011
. Estimates of divergence times between European–African andEast Asian–African populations are inconsistent with its simplest manifestation: a single dispersal from the continent followedby a split into Western and Eastern Eurasian branches. Rather, population divergence times are consistent with substantialancient gene flow to the proto-European population after its divergence with proto-East Asians, suggesting distinct, earlydispersals of modernH. sapiensfrom Africa. We use simulated genetic polymorphism data to demonstrate the validity of ourconclusions against alternative population demographic scenarios.

The Deep Structure of Human Society: Primate Origins and Evolution
Bernard Chapais
Springer, 2009

The concept of deep structure points to the following human universals: stable breeding bonds and their correlate, fatherhood; the multifamily community; strong siblingships; bilateral (uterine and agnatic) kin recognition; incest avoidance; out-marriage (exogamy); matrimonial exchange; dual-phase residence (pre/postmarital); lifetime bonds between dispersed kin; bilateral relations between in-laws; kin-biased and affinity-biased marriage rules; and between-group alliances (supragroup levels of social organization).

A palaeolithic map from 13,660 calBP: engraved stone blocks from the Late Magdalenian in Abauntz Cave (Navarra, Spain)
Utrilla et al.
Journal of human evolution, 2009

Oldest map

Social networks and information : Non-« utilitarian » mobility among hunter-gatherers
Robert Whallon
Journal of anthropological archeology, 2006
Hunter-gatherer mobility is not always related to the positioning of people for optimal exploitation of subsistence resources. Another essential reason for forager mobility is the establishment and maintenance of a network of social relations which provides a flow of information among widely scattered social groups and functions as a “safety net” in situations of local resource scarcity.
Feblot-Augustins J. (1997) – La circulation des matières premières au Paléolithique. Synthèse des données, perspectives comportementales [compte-rendu]

Jean-Pierre Bracco
Bulletin de la société préhistorique française, 2002