Végéta*ismes, os et dents

Partial Replacement of Animal Proteins with Plant Proteins for 12 Weeks Accelerates Bone Turnover Among Healthy Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Itkonen et al.
The journal of nutrition, 2020
https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/jn/nxaa264/5906634?fbclid=IwAR264YXduX5kXZ-dkfeWMtX4lMjC7-7OrXy9mx-lK1Ndng2xG_ygLtIxJG0

Partial replacement of animal proteins with plant-based proteins for 12 weeks increased the markers of bone resorption and formation among healthy adults, indicating a possible risk for bone health. This is probably caused by lower vitamin D and calcium intakes from diets containing more plant-based proteins, but it is unclear whether differences in protein intake or quality play a major role.

Veganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis *
Iguacel I et al., 2018
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328584228_Veganism_vegetarianism_bone_mineral_density_and_fracture_risk_a_systematic_review_and_meta-analysis

Two investigators evaluated 275 studies against the inclusion criteria (original studies in humans, written in English or Spanish and including vegetarian or vegan diets and omnivorous diets as factors with BMD values for the whole body, lumbar spine, or femoral neck and/or the number of fractures as the outcome) and exclusion criteria (articles that did not include imaging or studies that included participants who had suffered a fracture before starting the vegetarian or vegan diet). The quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess the quality of the studies.

Results:

Twenty studies including 37 134 participants met the inclusion criteria. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had lower BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and vegans also had higher fracture rates.

Bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and vitamin D status in Danish vegans.
Hansent TH et al., 2018
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29362456

When adjusting for seasonality and constitutional covariates (age, sex, and body fat percentage) vegans had higher concentrations of PINP (32 [95% CI: 7, 64]%, P = 0.01) and BAP (58 [95% CI: 27, 97]%, P < 0.001) compared to omnivores, whereas CTX (30 [95% CI: -1, 72]%, P = 0.06) and osteocalcin (21.8 [95% CI: -9.3, 63.7]%, P = 0.2) concentrations did not differ between the two groups. Vegans had higher serum PTH concentration (38 [95% CI: 19, 60]%; P < 0.001) and lower 25(OH)-D serum concentration (-33 [95% CI: -45, -19]%; P < 0.001), but similar serum calcium concentration (-1 [95% CI: -3, 1]%, P = 0.18 compared to omnivores.

CONCLUSIONS:

Vegans have higher levels of circulating bone turnover markers compared to omnivores, which may in the long-term lead to poorer bone health. Differences in dietary habits including intake of vitamin D and calcium may, at least partly, explain the observed differences.

Ici, le critère est d’être végan depuis plus d’un an (vraiment minimal en termes de durée) et d’être un adulte :
Diet-Dependent Net Endogenous Acid Load of Vegan Diets in Relation to Food Groups and Bone Health-Related Nutrients: Results from the German Vegan Study
Ströhle A. · Waldmann A. · Koschizke J.· Leitzmann C.· Hahn A, 2011
https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/331572

Data from healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), aged 21–75 years, who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for ≧1 year prior to study start; age ≧18 years, and no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) were included in the analysis. NEAP values were calculated from diet composition using two models: one based on the protein/potassium quotient and another taking into account an anthropometry-based loss of urinary organic anions. Results:Mean daily intakes of phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium and vitamin C were above, and vitamin D and calcium below Dietary Reference Intake (DRI).

The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz et al.
Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism 2010

Cliquer pour accéder à The-influence-of-vegan-diet-on-bone-mineral-density-and-biochemical-bone-turnover-markers.pdf

Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a de
crease in
bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially ch
ildren, in order to
prevent bone abnormalities.

Oral implication of the vegan diet : observational study
L. Laffranchi et al., 2010

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The study revealed greater incidence of demineralization and white spots in vegan subjects compared to the omnivorous ones

Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford
P Appleby, A Roddam, N Allen & T Key, 2007
https://www.nature.com/articles/1602659

Over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 343 men and 1555 women reported one or more fractures. Compared with meat eaters, fracture incidence rate ratios in men and women combined adjusted for sex, age and non-dietary factors were 1.01 (95% CI 0.88–1.17) for fish eaters, 1.00 (0.89–1.13) for vegetarians and 1.30 (1.02–1.66) for vegans. After further adjustment for dietary energy and calcium intake the incidence rate ratio among vegans compared with meat eaters was 1.15 (0.89–1.49). Among subjects consuming at least 525 mg/day calcium the corresponding incidence rate ratios were 1.05 (0.90–1.21) for fish eaters, 1.02 (0.90–1.15) for vegetarians and 1.00 (0.69–1.44) for vegans.

Ici, on est sur des crudivoristes :

Low Bone Mass in Subjects on a Long-term Raw Vegetarian Diet
Luigi Fontana et al.

Archives of internal medicine, 2005
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/486478

A RF vegetarian diet is associated with low bone mass at clinically important skeletal regions but is without evidence of increased bone turnover or impaired vitamin D status.

Protein intake and bone health: the influence of belief systems on the conduct of nutritional science
Robert P Heaney, 2001
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/73/1/5/4729610

Since our study was reported, an impressive body of literature has proven that protein tends to have a positive effect on bone overall. Two randomized controlled trials showed that increased protein intake dramatically improved outcomes after hip fracture (3, 4), and subsequent work showed that protein supplements reduce bone loss at the contralateral hip in patients with upper femoral fracture (5, 6). The most likely explanation is a protein-induced increase in insulin-like growth factor I (7), which is known to be osteotrophic.

Long-Term Vegetarian Diet and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Taiwanese Women
JF Chiu et al., 1997
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/PL00005812

Long-term practitioners of vegan vegetarian were found to be at a higher risk of exceeding lumbar spine fracture threshold (adjusted odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–5.96) and of being classified as having osteopenia of the femoral neck (3.94, 1.21–12.82). Identification of effective nutrition supplements may be necessary to improve BMD levels and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis among long-term female vegetarians.