Alimentation des humains modernes (Sapiens, Neandertal)

 

1. Généralités
2. Neandertal [Page dédiée]
3. Sapiens au paléolithique
4. Chasseurs-cueilleurs récents
5. Depuis le néolithique [
Page dédiée]

 


Généralités

 

Cooking shapes the structure and function of the gut microbiome [Abstract]
Carmody et al.
Nature, 2019

Because cooking is human-specific, ubiquitous and ancient6,7, our results prompt the hypothesis that humans and our microbiomes co-evolved under unique cooking-related pressures.

How carnivorous are we? The implication for protein consumption [PDF]
Miki Ben-Dor
Journal of evolution and health, 2019

A drastic decline in terrestrial mammals took place from approximately 500 kgs at the beginning of the Pleistocene2.5 million years ago to about 10 kgs today.
[…]
Although we are undoubtedly omnivores, the biologic evidence that was presented here claims to show that we evolved, quite early in our evolution as the genus Homo, to become highly carnivorous and that we continue to retain a biologic adaptation to carnivory. This high level of carnivory means that during a large part of our evolution our diet was high in protein besides being high in fat.

Putrid Meat and Fish in the Eurasian Middle and Upper Paleolithic : Are We Missing a Key Part of Neanderthal and Modern Human Diet?
John D. Speth
PaleoAnthropology, 2017
http://www.paleoanthro.org/media/journal/content/PA20170044.pdf

If such food practices were in fact widespread during the mid- to late Pleistocene, they may help account for aspects of the archaeological record that are presently difficult to comprehend, such as the ‘on again, off again’ evidence for fire use (and hence cooking) during the Eurasian Middle Paleolithic. Putrefaction also may alter the isotopic composi-tion of the diet. As meat and fish decompose, a variety of volatile compounds are produced, including ammonia. Loss of NH3, along with lesser amounts of two other nitrogenous gases—cadaverine and putrescine—would very likely leave rotted meat and fish enriched in 15N by comparison to the isotopic composition of these foods in their fresh state. Such enrichment may have contributed to the elevated values seen in many Neanderthals, values that are widely taken as prima facie evidence of Neanderthal’s status as a ‘top predator.’ Finally, if Paleolithic foragers relied upon putrefaction to prepare and store meat, archaeologists may have to rethink the way they interpret a number of widely used taphonomic signatures, including the number and distribution of cutmarks, the extent of carnivore damage, the incidence of burning on both animal bones and stone tools, and the frequency and scale of hearths, ash lenses, and other features of combustion.

Evidence for chronic omega-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid deficiency in Palaeolithic hominins in Europe at the emergence of cannibalism [PDF]
J.L. Guil-Guerrero
Quaternary science revue, 2017

hominins at the M/UP transition had a deficit of both omega-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid. Data on human organs summarized here are also conclusive: these contain such nutrients in amounts much higher than reached in the corresponding mammal organs consumed, and thus could have been alternative sources of those nutrients for Palaeolithic hominins. Therefore, nutritional cannibalism detected at such times could have had the function of alleviating these deficits. The evolutionary advantages gained by the consumption of the various omega-3 fatty acids of human origin are also discussed.

 

Recent elephant-carcass utilization as a basis for interpreting mammoth exploitation
Haynes, 2015
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618213009749

Both Pavlovian and Clovis people were close-range hunters who used spears and may or may not have had spear-throwers. The use of bow-and-arrow has also been proposed for Pavlovian, but not for Clovis. Both cultural complexes also probably used nets and snares to capture smaller animals. Lithic technology differed considerably – small blades in Pavlovian and bifaces in Clovis are the dominant forms. The larger Pavlovian settlements were preferentially situated in animal-migration bottlenecks, corridors connecting plains separated by mountains or highlands (Svoboda, 2007: 208). Herd animals that migrated through these corridors – reindeer, mammoths, horses – were hunted, and carnivores were also taken for food and furs, or for bones and teeth to use as raw materials (Table 3). Clovis sites are not so preferentially located in such well defined physiographic settings in North America. The extent that animals other than mammoths were taken by Clovis hunters for food is not clear; a continent-wide faunal list from 31 Clovis-era sites includes ∼20 mammalian taxa (Table 4), although not all of them may have been subsistence-related (Haynes and Hutson, 2013).

The origins and significance of coastal resource use in Africa and Western Eurasia
Curtis Marean
Journal of human evolution, 2014
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248414002292?casa_token=LKebqIi5s8YAAAAA:jLpOvPiViCg5YunzQvIvAZ7AG4561Cviqgwi-WDLS_Mc-3XGlVCHgKKVyHpl1HDXu1HVZ2JwTjQ

This paper provides a critical review of where and when systematic use of coastal resources and coastal adaptations appeared in the Old World by a comparison of the records from Africa and Europe. It is found that during the Middle Stone Age in South Africa there is evidence that true coastal adaptations developed while there is, so far, a lack of evidence for even the lowest levels of systematic coastal resource use by Neanderthals in Europe.

 
Stature of early Europeans
 
When applied to the Palaeolithic-Neolithic transition, the isotopes broadly show
a diet rich in protein at the end of the glacial period, a diversification, with emphasis on fish resources during the Mesolithic, and an impoverishment during the

Neolithic.[…]

the amount of meat eaten decreased to about 10-20% of the Upper Palaeolithic optimum.
 

Dietary lean red meat and human evolution
Neil Mann
European journal of nutrition, 2000
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s003940050005

In our own studies, we have shown evidence that diets high in lean red meat can actually lower plasma cholesterol, contribute significantly to tissue omega-3 fatty acid and provide a good source of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A study of human and pre-human diet history shows that for a period of at least 2 million years the human ancestral line had been consuming increasing quantities of meat. During that time, evolutionary selection was in action, adapting our genetic make up and hence our physiological features to a diet high in lean meat. This meat was wild game meat, low in total and saturated fat and relatively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

 


Néandertal

[Déplacé ici]


Sapiens au paléolithique

Trophic ecology of a Late Pleistocene early modern human from tropical Southeast Asia inferred from zinc isotopes [Texte]
Bourgon et al.
Journal of human evolution, 2021

Bourgon et al Asie sud est sapiens fin middle

Stable isotopes reveal patterns of diet and mobility in the last Neandertals and first modern humans in Europe [Texte]
Wibing et al.
Nature Scientific Reports, 2019

Using the stable isotopic approach, we shed light on aspects of diet and mobility of the late Neandertals and UPMHs from the cave sites of the Troisième caverne of Goyet and Spy in Belgium. We demonstrate that their diet was essentially similar, relying on the same terrestrial herbivores, whereas mobility strategies indicate considerable differences between Neandertal groups, as well as in comparison to UPMHs. Our results indicate that UPMHs exploited their environment to a greater extent than Neandertals and support the hypothesis that UPMHs had a substantial impact not only on the population dynamics of large mammals but also on the whole structure of the ecosystem since their initial arrival in Europe.

The earliest direct evidence of mammoth hunting in Central Europe – The Kraków Spadzista site (Poland)
Piotr Wojtal et al.
Quaternary science review, 2019
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0277379118308588

The oldest unequivocal evidence of mammoth hunting in prehistoric Central Europe has been found in the Gravettian archaeological site Kraków Spadzista (Poland). The site contains thousands of lithic artifacts and the remains of >100 woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius), with radiocarbon dates clustering ∼25–24 ka uncal BP. A fragment of a flint shouldered point is embedded in a mammoth rib, and more than 50% of the site’s flint shouldered points and backed blades bear diagnostic traces of hafting and impact damage from use as spear tips. Additional support for mammoth killing is the mortality profile of 112 mammoths from the site: some age groups may have been depleted due to recurring heavy hunting by humans during periods of environmental stress. The evidence for intensive human hunting could portend a development thousands of years later, at the end of the Pleistocene, when climate-caused habitat changes were more extreme, and, in combination with opportunistic human hunting, may have led to woolly mammoth extinction.

Elephant and Mammoth Hunting during the Paleolithic: A Review of the Relevant Archaeological, Ethnographic and Ethno-Historical Records [PDF]
Agam & Barkai
Quaternary, 2018

This study examines the archaeological evidence of proboscidean hunting during Paleolithic times, and provides a review of ethnographic and ethno-historical accounts, demonstrating a wide range of traditional elephant-hunting strategies. We also discuss the rituals accompanying elephant hunting among contemporary hunter-gatherers, further stressing the importance of elephants among hunter-gatherers. Based on the gathered data, we suggest that early humans possessed the necessary abilities to actively and regularly hunt proboscideans; and performed this unique and challenging task at will.

Reconstruction of the Gravettian food-web at Předmostí I using multi-isotopic tracking (13C, 15N, 34S) of bone collagen
Bocherens et al., 2015
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104061821400696X
Strong reliance on mammoth meat was found for the human of the site, similarly to previously analyzed individuals from other Gravettian sites in Moravia. Interestingly, the large canids interpreted as “Palaeolithic dogs” had a high proportion of reindeer/muskox in their diet, while consumption of mammoth would be expected from the availability of this prey especially in case of close interaction with humans. The peculiar isotopic composition of the Palaeolithic dogs of Předmostí I may indicate some control of their dietary intake by Gravettian people, who could have use them more for transportation than hunting purpose.

Hunters of the giants: Woolly mammoth hunting during the Gravettian in Central Europe
Piotr Wojtal & Jaroslaw Wilczynsky

Quaternary international, 2015
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1040618215005339

Between 30,000 and 20,000 years ago, Gravettian hunter-gatherers spread across most of Europe. In Central Europe, large and important sites have been discovered, especially those in the Czech Republic at the base of the Pavlovské (Palava) Hills, and in southern Poland. The remains of different mammalian carnivores and herbivores accumulated in bone assemblages at these Gravettian sites. Mammoth bones and teeth are significant components in them. Mammoths certainly played a significant role in the lifetime of the Central European societies of Gravettian hunter-gatherers. These Pleistocene giants provided not only food, but also raw materials for tools and the production of ornaments. The presence of the remains of many mammoths shows that the Gravettian people were specialized in the hunting of these animals.

 
 

How do you kill 86 mammoths? Taphonomic investigations of mammoth megasites
Pat Shipman, 2014
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262453667_How_do_you_kill_86_mammoths_Taphonomic_investigations_of_mammoth_megasites

« The large number of individual mammoths and the scarcity of carnivore toothmarks and gnawing suggest a new ability to retain kill mammoths and control of carcasses. Age profiles of such mammoth-dominated sites with a large minimum number of individuals differ statistically at the p < 0.01 level from age profiles of Loxodonta africana populations that died of either attritional or catastrophic causes. However, age profiles from some mammoth sites exhibit a chain of linked resemblances with each other through time and space, suggesting the transmission of behavioral or technological innovation. I hypothesize that this innovation may have been facilitated by an early attempted domestication of dogs, as indicated by a group of genetically and morphologically distinct large canids which first appear in archaeological sites at about 32 ka B.P. »

 

Chasseurs-cueilleurs récents

 

Même avec une « much higer contribution » des plantes, les produits animaux restent à 35-47%, on mange tout dans l’animal, et il se peut que la contribution des insectes soit sous-estimée.

Current views on hunter‐gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet
Alyssa Crittenden, Stephanie Schnorr
America journal of physical anthropology, 2017
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajpa.23148

These sources suggest that plants constitute a much higher contribution to the diet, approximately 65%, with animal products making up the remaining 35% (Eaton, Shostak, & Konner, 1988). In addition, a more recent analysis by Frank Marlowe (Marlowe, 2005; and also summarized in relation to the Hadza of Tanzania in his 2010 book, The Hadza) suggests that the median diet of warm‐climate foragers is composed of 53% gathered plant foods, 26% hunted foods, and 21% fished foods.[…]
In addition, meat consumed by foraging populations is not limited to large game muscle tissue and extends to all edible portions of the carcass—inclusive of organs, bone marrow, and sometimes even the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of the animal […] Furthermore, many populations also consume variable quantities of insects, which until quite recently were often discarded or underestimated.

 

Diets of modern hunter-gatherers vary substantially in their carbohydrate content depending on ecoenvironments: results from an ethnographic analysis
Alexander Ströhle & Andreas Hahn
Nutrition research, 2011
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531711000911

using data of plant-to-animal subsistence ratios, we calculated the carbohydrate intake (percentage of the total energy) in 229 hunter-gatherer diets throughout the world and determined how differences in ecological environments altered carbohydrate intake. We found a wide range of carbohydrate intake (≈3%-50% of the total energy intake; median and mode, 16%-22% of the total energy). Hunter-gatherer diets were characterized by an identical carbohydrate intake (30%-35% of the total energy) over a wide range of latitude intervals (11°-40° north or south of the equator). However, with increasing latitude intervals from 41° to greater than 60°, carbohydrate intake decreased markedly from approximately equal to 20% to 9% or less of the total energy. Hunter-gatherers living in desert and tropical grasslands consumed the most carbohydrates (≈29%-34% of the total energy). Diets of hunter-gatherers living in northern areas (tundra and northern coniferous forest) contained a very low carbohydrate content (≤15% of the total energy). In conclusion, diets of hunter-gatherers showed substantial variation in their carbohydrate content. Independent of the local environment, however, the range of energy intake from carbohydrates in the diets of most hunter-gatherer societies was markedly different (lower) from the amounts currently recommended for healthy humans.

 
 
Hunting and Gathering. The Human Sexual Division of Foraging Labor
Frank W. Marlowe
Cross-cultural research, 2007
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1069397106297529?casa_token=VUna9fT0klYAAAAA:vqhLYUiNly9A7Mp5eMO3RVwoccfX28Oebn8C26Kouqd0B-dZPetaAT_4f_dX9iSKUIvaA3c2XGw

 

Marlowe 2007 division du travail
Marlowe 2007 division du travail 2
 
 
 
 
Hunter-Gatherers and Human Evolution
Frank w. Marlowe
Evolutionary anthropology, 2005
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.539.6111&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Marlowe, 2005
 
 
 
 
Evolution : Diet, Intelligence, and Longevity
Kaplan et al.
Evolutionnary anthropology, 2000
https://www.unm.edu/~hkaplan/KaplanHillLancasterHurtado_2000_LHEvolution.pdf

 

Production nourriture par hommes et femmes HG Kaplan 2000
 
 
 
Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets
Loren Cordain et al., 2000
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/71/3/682/4729121
 
Our analysis showed that whenever and wherever it was ecologically possible, hunter-gatherers consumed high amounts (45–65% of energy) of animal food. Most (73%) of the worldwide hunter-gatherer societies derived >50% (≥56–65% of energy) of their subsistence from animal foods, whereas only 14% of these societies derived >50% (≥56–65% of energy) of their subsistence from gathered plant foods. This high reliance on animal-based foods coupled with the relatively low carbohydrate content of wild plant foods produces universally characteristic macronutrient consumption ratios in which protein is elevated (19–35% of energy) at the expense of carbohydrates (22–40% of energy).
 
Total dependence on animal food
 

Traditional diet and food preferences of Australian Aboriginal hunter-gatherers
Kerin O’Dea, 1991
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rstb.1991.0112


odea1991. différences aborigènes occidentaux

 

Paleolithic Nutrition, a consideration of it nature and current implications
Eaton & Konner
New England journal of medicine, 1985
https://www.melvinkonner.com/images/PDFs/articles/Paleolithic%20Nutrition%20NEJM%2085.pdf

Why hunters gather: optimal foraging and the Aché of eastern Paraguay
Kristen Hawkes, Kim Hill, James F. O’Connel, 1982.
https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1525/ae.1982.9.2.02a00100

 

 

 

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