1. Longévité et espérance de vie dans les sociétés pré-industrielles.
2. Records de longévité contemporains.
3. L’hypothèse de la grand-mère.
Jeremy Koster et al., 2019
Walker et al.(2002) and Gurven et al. (2006) report data from the southern Neotropics that subsistence hunters achieve high proficiency only after reaching advanced ages, roughly 35 to 45 yearsold. Because hunters achieve adult size and strength much earlier in life, these results areconsistent with the embodied capital hypothesis and its emphasis on the gradual masteryof cognitively complex hunting strategies […]
Our analysis supports the general conclusion that skill peaks between 30 and 35 years ofage, well after the age of reproductive maturity. Peak skill is typically not much higher thanskill during early adulthood, however. Declines with age are typically slow—an average56 year old has the same proportion of maximum skill as an average 18 year old. There isconsiderable variation both among sites and individual hunters within study sites. Variation among individuals is described more by heterogeneity in the rate of decline than the rateof gain.
Le second graphique représente l’évolution des décès des adultes par âge. L’âge modal au décès est celui où sont constatés le plus de décès. Il est de l’ordre de 70 ans dans la plupart des sociétés de chasseurs-cueilleurs.
Population and developpement revue, 2007
Certaines études un peu anciennes ont pu sous-estimer les âges au décès des adultes, pour des époques historiques, mais sans doute aussi préhistoriques :
INED, Population et sociétés n°380, 2002
Evolutionnary anthropology, 2000
The genetic structure of a tribal population, the Yanomama Indians.
James V. Neel, Kenneth M. Weiss
American journal of physical anthropology, 1975
Evidence That Jeanne Calment Died in 1934—Not 1997
Rejuvenation research, 2019
I present a body of data that, I argue, cumulatively casts serious doubt on the validity of Jeanne Calment’s accepted world record of human life span. First, I assess the plausibility of the record based on the life spans of other centenarians in the International Database of Longevity (IDL) and critique some arguments put forward previously in support of that plausibility, including the longevity of Calment’s ancestors. Second, I review the literature dedicated to Calment and discuss multiple contradictions in her interviews, biographies, photos, and documents. I argue that the evidence from these sources motivates renewed consideration of the previously rejected hypothesis that Jeanne’s daughter Yvonne acquired her mother’s identity after her death to avoid financial problems and that Jeanne Calment’s death was reported as Yvonne’s death in 1934. Finally I discuss the importance of reconsidering the principles of validation, due to the possibility of similar problems regarding other exceptionally long-lived people and the mistaken inferences that researchers may draw from flawed datasets. The phenomenon of Jeanne Calment may prove to be an instructive example of the uncertainty of seemingly well-established facts.
The plateau of human mortality: demography of longevity pioneers
Barbi et al
The increasing number of exceptionally long-lived people (Table 1) and the fact that their mortality beyond 105 is seen to be declining across cohorts—lowering the mortality plateau or postponing the age when it appears—strongly suggest that longevity is continuing to increase over time and that a limit, if any, has not been reached. Our results contribute to a recently rekindled debate (15–17) about the existence of a fixed maximum life span for humans, underwriting doubt that any limit is as yet in view.
Comment on “The plateau of human mortality: Demography of longevity pioneers”
Beltran-Sanchez et al.
Barbi et al. (Reports, 29 June 2018, p. 1459) reported that human mortality rate reached a “plateau” after the age of 105, suggesting there may be no limit to human longevity. We show, using their data, that potential lifespans cannot increase much beyond the current 122 years unless future biomedical advances alter the intrinsic rate of human aging.
Response to Comment on “The plateau of human mortality: Demography of longevity pioneers”
Barbi et al.
Beltrán-Sánchez et al. based their comment on misleading calculations of the maximum survival age. With realistic numbers of people attaining age 105 and the estimated plateau, the Jeanne Calment record is indeed plausible.
Errors as a primary cause of late-life mortality deceleration and plateaus
Saul Justin Newman
Here, it is shown that late-life mortality deceleration (LLMD) and late-life plateaus are caused by common demographic errors. […] ageing does not slow or stop during old age in humans, and that there is a finite limit to human longevity.
The grandmother effect
Why do women live long past the age of child-bearing? Contrary to common wisdom, this phenomenon is not new, and is not due to support for the elderly. Rather, grannies have a lot to offer their grandchildren.
Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories
Hawkes et al.
Long postmenopausal lifespans distinguish humans from all other primates. This pattern may have evolved with mother–child food sharing, a practice that allowed aging females to enhance their daughters’ fertility, thereby increasing selection against senescence. Combined with Charnov’s dimensionless assembly rules for mammalian life histories, this hypothesis also accounts for our late maturity, small size at weaning, and high fertility. It has implications for past human habitat choice and social organization and for ideas about the importance of extended learning and paternal provisioning in human evolution.
Voyage en terres gérontocides : l’élimination des vieillards comme remède à la vieillesse ?
Cahier des études anciennes, 2018
L’importance aux yeux des Grecs des notions d’âge et de classes d’âge conduit nos auteurs à poser un âge défini pour les exécutions, exprimé en multiples de 10 qui plus est, aussi surprenant soit-il pour des peuples jugés non civilisés et ignorants des computations calendaires15. De telles précisions traduisent des présupposés bien étranges pour les populations citées et renvoient plus sûrement aux déterminations de seuils fonctionnels ou physiologiques de la vieillesse en pays grec, à 60 ou 70 ans