Alimentation des premiers humains (jusqu’à Erectus)

Bone marrow storage and delayed consumption at Middle Pleistocene Qesem Cave, Israel (420 to 200 ka)
Blasco et al.
Science advances, 2019

Bone marrow and grease constitute an important source of nutrition and have attracted the attention of human groups since prehistoric times. Marrow consumption has been linked to immediate consumption following the procurement and removal of soft tissues. Here, we present the earliest evidence for storage and delayed consumption of bone marrow at Qesem Cave, Israel (~420 to 200 ka). This is the earliest evidence of such previously unidentified behavior, and it offers insights into the socio-economy of the human groups who lived at Qesem and may mark a threshold to new modes of Palaeolithic human adaptation.

Origins of the Human Predatory Pattern: The Transition to Large-Animal Exploitation by Early Hominins

We propose that the regular exploitation of large-animal resources—the “human predatory pattern”—began with an emphasis on percussion-based scavenging of inside-bone nutrients, independent of the emergence of flaked stone tool use. This leads to a series of empirical test implications that differ from previous “meat-eating” origins scenarios.

A brief history of meat in the human diet and current health implications
Neil J. Mann
Meat science, 2018

This ASF intake marked a transition from a largely forest dwelling frugivorous lifestyle to a more open rangeland existence and resulted in numerous adaptations, including a rapidly increasing brain size and altered gut structure.

The carnivorous feeding behavior of early Homo at HWK EE, Bed II, Olduvai Gorge,
Revisiting the hunting-versus-scavenging debate at FLK Zinj: A GIS spatial analysis of bone surface modifications produced by hominins and carnivores in the FLK 22assemblage, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
Jennifer A. Parkinson, 2018

The social organization ofHomo ergaster: Inferences fromanti-predator responses in extant primates
Erik P. Willems, Carel P. van Schaik
Journal of human evolution, 2017

we analyze reports on primate counter-attacks against knownpredators andfind these are indeed disproportionately frequent in terrestrial taxa living in open habitats,sometimes even involving the use of tentative weapons. If we subsequently only examine the taxa thatare particularly adept at this (chimpanzees and baboons), wefind an effect of habitat type on group size:groups on the savanna are larger than those in the forest. We thus infer thatH. ergasterlived in very largegroups with many males that jointly defended the group against carnivorans, and argue that thesecounter-attacks will readily have turned into confrontational scavenging and cooperative hunting,allowingHomoto move into the niche of social carnivore.

Morphologie fonctionnelle, biomécanique et rétrodiction du régime alimentaire des premiers homininés,
Frederick E. Grine, David J Daegling, 2017

How Meat Made us Human: Archaeological Evidence of the Diet and Foraging Capabilities of Early Pleistocene Homo in East Africa *
Henry Bunn et al.
Oxford handbook online, 2017
The proportions of different skeletal elements, particularly once-meaty limb bones, and the abundance of stone-tool butchery damage on those bones, indicate that by 1.84 Ma at the FLK Zinj site at Olduvai Gorge, hominins had first access to prey carcasses. Moreover, mortality (age at death) profiles suggest active hunting by early Homo rather than secondary access to scavenged carcasses. Evidently, early Homo was repeatedly transporting meaty portions of large carcasses for delayed consumption and probable food sharing—behaviours characteristic of humans, not apes.
Meat-Eating Among the Earliest Humans
Briana Pobiner, 2017
Without the abundance of calories afforded by meat-eating, they maintain, the human brain simply could not have evolved to its current form.

The meat of the matter: an evolutionary perspective on human carnivory
Manuel Dominguez-Rodrigo, Travis Rayn Pickering
Archeological research in Africa, 2017

A review of the early Pleistocene African record demonstrates that taphonomic evidence of a hominin predatory/meat-eating behavioral module clarifies ∼2.0 Mya, a critical time period characterised by traces of advanced carcass foraging

Impact of meat and Lower Palaeolithic food processing techniques on chewing in humans
Katherine D. Zink, Daniel E. Lieberman
Nature, 2016

Although cooking has important benefits, it appears that selection for smaller masticatory features in Homo would have been initially made possible by the combination of using stone tools and eating meat.

The plant component of an Acheulian diet at Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Israel
Melamed et al.
PNAS, 2016
Diet is central for understanding hominin evolution, adaptation, and environmental exploitation, but Paleolithic plant remains are scarce. A unique macrobotanical assemblage of 55 food plant taxa from the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Israel includes seeds, fruits, nuts, vegetables, and plants producing underground storage organs. The food plant remains were part of a diet that also included aquatic and terrestrial fauna. This diverse assemblage, 780,000 y old, reflects a varied plant diet, staple plant foods, environmental knowledge, seasonality, and the use of fire in food processing.
When bigger is not better: The economics of hunting megafauna and its implications for Plio-Pleistocene hunter-gatherers
Karen D. Lupo, Dave N. Schmitt
When man met meat: meat in human nutrition from ancient times till today
There is evidence that meat consumption has had an influence on cranial-dental and intestinal morphologic changes, human erect posture, reproductive characteristics, longer lifespan, and maybe most importantly, on brain and intellectual development
Turtles and Tortoises of the World During the Rise and Global Spread of Humanity:
First Checklist and Review of Extinct Pleistocene and Holocene Chelonians
Rhodin & al., 2015
3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya
Sonia Harmand et al., 2015.

A taste of an elephant: The probable role of elephant meat in Paleolithic diet preferences
Hagar Reshef & Ran Barkai
Quaternary International, 2015

We suggest that early hominins might have had taste preferences and that elephant meat played a significant role in their diet, when available. Furthermore, the archaeological evidence coupled with ethnographic observations and the study of frozen mammoths suggest that juvenile elephants were specifically a delicacy and were hunted intentionally since their specific meat and fat composition seems to have had a better taste and a better nutritional value.

On meat eating and human evolution: a taphonomic analysis of BK4b (Upper Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania), and its bearing on hominin megafaunal consumption.**
Domínguez-Rodrigo et al.
Quaternary  International, 2014

The first evidence of cut marks and usewear tracesfrom the Plio-Pleistocene locality  of El-Kherba  (Ain  Hanech), Algeria: implications for early hominin subsistence activities circa 1.8 Ma. **
Sahnouni et al, 2013

Man the Fat Hunter: The Demise of Homo erectus and the Emergence of a New Hominin Lineage in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 400 kyr) Levant

Miki Ben-Dor, Avi Gopher, Israel Hershkovitz, Ran Barkai, 2011.

Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya
David R. Braun et al., 2010
Unraveling hominin behavior at another anthropogenic site from Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania): new archaeological and taphonomic research at BK, Upper Bed IIM. Dominguez-Rodrigo, 2009.

Dental topography and diets of Australopithecus Afarensis and early Homo
Peter Ungar.
Journal of Human Evolution, 2004

Early Homo shows steeper slopes and more relief than chimpanzees, whereas A. afarensis shows less slope and relief than any of the other groups. The differences between the two hominin taxa are on the same order as those between the extant apes, suggesting similar degrees of difference in diet. Because these chimpanzees and gorillas differ mostly in fallback foods where they are sympatric, results suggest that the early hominins may likewise have differed mostly in fallback foods, with A. afarensis emphasizing harder, more brittle foods, and early Homo relying on tougher, more elastic foods.
Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors

Hunting and Scavenging by Plio-Pleistocene Hominids: Nutritional Constraints, Archaeological Patterns, and Behavioural Implications
Henry T. Bunn, Joseph A. Ezzo, 1993.



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