Sexe, genre

Division du travail des sociétés paléolithiques, dimorphisme sexuel…

A critical analysis of the evidence for sexual division of tasks in the european upper paleolothic (chapitre de livre)
Sophie A. de Beaune
Squeezing minds from tools

“I sing of arms and of a man…”: medial epicondylosis and the sexual division of labour in prehistoric Europe
Villotte & Knüsel
Journal of archeological science, 2014

This indicates that males, but not females, preferentially employed movements involving throwing motions in these hunter-gatherer and early farming groups. Based on this evidence we postulate the existence of a persistent sexual division of labour in these prehistoric European populations involving one or several strenuous activities linked to unilateral limb use.

The importance of physical strength for males
Sell et al.
Human nature, 2012

Fighting ability, although recognized as fundamental to intrasexual competition
in many nonhuman species, has received little attention as an explanatory variable
in the social sciences. Multiple lines of evidence from archaeology, criminology,
anthropology, physiology, and psychology suggest that fighting ability was a crucial
aspect of intrasexual competition for ancestral human males, and this has contributed to the evolution of numerous physical and psychological sex differences. Because fighting ability was relevant to many domains of interaction, male psychology should have evolved such that a man’s attitudes and behavioral responses are calibrated according to his formidability. Data are reviewed showing that better fighters feel entitled to better outcomes, set lower thresholds for anger/aggression, have self-favoring political attitudes, and believe more in the utility of warfare. New data are presented showing that among Hollywood actors, those selected for their physical strength (i.e., action stars) are more likely to believe in the utility of warfare.

Men physical strenght

Osteological clues for the presence of a sexual division of labour in the Eurasian Middle Paleolithic
Japp Saers
Leiden university, 2011

In this bachelor thesis I investigate whether Neanderthals had a sexual division of labour or not. I established three hypotheses: 1) Neanderthals had a sexual division of labour where males hunt and females gather plant foods and perform other activities, 2) Neanderthals had a sexual division of labour where males and females hunt but males perform the most dangerous tasks, 3) there was no sexual division of labour and males and females hunted and gathered in equal amounts. To find out if Neanderthals had a sexual division of labour, a meta-study of two osteological analyses applied to Neanderthal bones was performed. The first methods that was used was a comparison of the shape and robusticity of male and female Neanderthal limb bones compared to samples of modern human hunter-gatherers and sedentary populations. Secondly the distribution of trauma across the skeletons of male and female Neanderthals was compared. In both of the analyses the evidence pointed towards the first hypothesis. The evidence however was too limited. The small sample size of sexable Neanderthals was the largest issue. I concluded that according to the data gathered in this thesis hypothesis 1 is the most likely. However, none of the three hypotheses can be rejected confidently due to the limited evidence.

Subsistence activities and the sexual division of labor in the European Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic: Evidence from upper limb enthesopathies
Villotte et al.
Journal of human evolution, 2010

Four males exhibit lesions that can be confidently associated with throwing activities, while no females exhibit such lesions.

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Behavior of Women and Men : Implications for the Origins of Sex Differences
Wendy Wood & Alice H. Eagly
Psychological bulletin, 2002

Division du travail 1973

Panter-Brick C. Sexual division of labor: energetic and evolutionary scenarios, 2002

Evolution : Diet, Intelligence, and Longevity
Kaplan et al.
Evolutionnary anthropology, 2000

Kapla contribution 2000

Production nourriture par hommes et femmes HG Kaplan 2000

Female subsistence strategies among Ache hunter–gatherers of eastern Paraguay. Hum Ecol. 1985